Ikkat, or Ikat, is a dyeing technique used to pattern textiles that employs a resist dyeing process on the warp fibres, the weft fibres, or in the rare and costly ‘double ikat’ both warp and weft, prior to dyeing and weaving.
In ikat, the resist is formed by binding bundles of threads with a tight wrapping applied in the desired pattern. The threads are then dyed. The bindings may then be altered and the thread bundles dyed again with another color to produce elaborate, multicolored patterns. When the dyeing is finished the bindings are removed and the threads are woven into a cloth. In other resist-dyeing techniques such as tie-dye and batik, the resist is applied to one side of the woven cloth, whereas in ikat the threads are dyed before weaving, and both sides are essentially identical in appearance.
Ikat is more of Indonesia product, though ikats have also been woven in India and central Asia. Double ikats are produced in a few places including the village of Tenganan in Bali, the Okinawa islands of Japan, and the villages of Puttapaka and Bhoodan Pochampally in Telangana state of India.
Types of Ikat
In warp ikat the patterns are clearly visible in the warp threads on the loom even before the plain colored weft is introduced to produce the fabric. Warp ikat is, amongst others, produced in Indonesia; more specifically in Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Sumatra by respectively the Dayaks, Torajans and Bataks.
In weft ikat it is the weaving or weft thread that carries the dyed patterns which only appear as the weaving proceeds. In weft ikat the weaving proceeds much slower than in warp ikat as the passes of the weft must be carefully adjusted to maintain the clarity of the patterns.
Double Ikat - a technique in which both weft and the warp are resist-dyed prior to stringing on the handloom. Double ikat is produced pnly in three countries: India, Indonesia and Japan. The double ikat of Indonesia is only made in one small Bali Aga village, Tenganan in east Bali. In Japan it is a type of kasuri. It is woven in the Okinawa islands where it is called tate-yoko gasuri. The double ikat of India is predominantly woven in Gujarat and is called patola and it is also woven in Pochampally and Puttapaka,Nalgonda District of Telangana State in India and is called Puttapaka Saree.
Gajam Anjaiah honoured with Padma Shri by President of India
Gajam Anjaiah (born 16 May 1955) is an Indian master handloom designer who is widely recognised in the handloom industry for his innovations and developments of Tie and Dye handloom products along with Telia Rumal technique of weaving (IKAT / Tie & Dye process). He received Padma Shri from Government of India under Art category in 2013. He is known for his traditional design known as Puttapaka Sarees in Tie and dye skill, that is the traditional art of designing on paper and then transferring it on to cloth. His dedication to the Handloom Industry has kept the Indian tradition of weaving alive, brought livelihood to the weavers and gave exclusive/unique designed handloom products to the people in India.